Whitfield In The Past.


Based on a damaged copy of notes of a lecture given to Whitfield Working Men's Club on 29 November 1903. Missing words in the original notes are denoted by ???

ln early times there were very few enclosures, the only enclosures being to prevent the cattle from straying on to the wheat or other grain lands. The pasturage was common to all, each township having its own well defined boundaries. The boundaries I have spoken of were generally natural boundaries. Let us traverse the boundaries of the "Township of Whitfield." Starting at the Eastern extremity, we commence with the source of the Hurst brook, and following it we find at Cross Cliff that it is there joined by the Shelf brook, and it now changes its name to the Glossop brook. We now proceed to Dinting Bridge, where we must leave it, and ascend the Primrose brook to its rise in the moors. The southern boundaries are the moors. You will see that the Township of Whitfield is not a small one, in fact, at the present time, it is the most populous.

The township, after the Anglo-Saxon conquest, was divided, like all other places, amongst those who, by force of arms, had assisted in wresting it from the Romano-Britons, and it remained in Saxon hands until William I became the sole ruler of England. Strong resistance was made to his arms, and on the neighbouring hills he had a severe fight, with the final result that the Saxon owners lost their possessions, and William gave the lands to William Peveril, his natural son. Peveril gave some of Whitfield to the ancestors of Matilda of Whitfield and Thomas le Ragged, Foresters of the High Peak Forest, for their services. We have no known record whether Matilda of Whitfield sold her portion, or whether through marriage of herself or descendants it passed to a family of another name, but we do know that Thomas le Ragged in 1330 sold his portion to John Foljambe. This gentleman died in 1358 and is buried in Tideswell church, which was built mainly by his benevolence. I have no doubt some of you have seen the brass plate which marks the spot where he is buried. The Foljambes probably sold the portion to the Bagshawes of Ridge Hall, near Chapel-en-le-Frith, where we know they were living in 1141. We had a Rev. George Bagshawe appointed to the living of Glossop in 1439. He was the vicar for 18 years. In 1606 Thomas Bagshawe sold his Whitfield estate to the local yeomen.

The records preserved at the County Record Office show that the following families were amongst the purchasers:—
Thomas Barber, yeoman, £42 6s., who sold it to William Wagstaffe, in 1617, for £150 9s. 8d. The estate consisted of The Flatt, now occupied by Councillor Hadfield, Carr Meadow, and other closes and pastures;
William Wagstaffe, mercer. The Over Bore, and Lower Bore Meadow, occupied by ??? Hadfield, and the Bore meadow ??? of Thomas Barber;
Robert Bromhall, yeoman, The Lower Burghes or Burres; William Bore, yeoman, messuage and closes of land at Crosscliffe for £56 15s;
John Bore, yeoman, messuage and closes of land at Crosscliffe for £65;
William Padfield, yeoman, messuage and closes of land called Padfield Gate, Cliffe Road.
The following purchased messuages and land which are not particularly described:—
Nicholas Charlesworth, yeoman. This was the Jumble estate.
Nicholas Boothe and Robert Robinson, yeomen, £42 6s. They were evidently executors.
William Dewsnopp, yeoman, £56 10s;
John Hynchliffe, yeoman;
George Wood, yeoman, £49 15s.
John Hadfield, yeoman;
Nicholas Hadfield, yeoman, £85 15s. 6d.
One of these Hadfields must have been the Lees Hall Hadfields, and no doubt they were related, but the Parish Registers only commencing in 1620, it is now difficult to determine their relationship.

The Peveril estates were forfeited to the crown through the owner being attainted of crime, and eventually came into the possession of the Howard family. You now see that it was through Whitfield being sold that much of it is freehold land.

Coal was not burned in this district at the time these sales took place, but turf was cut, and stacked, and when sufficiently dried used for fuel. I have no doubt that the Little Moor was brought into cultivation by the removal of the turf by the inhabitants centuries ago. The inhabitants of Whitfield still retain their right the turf at the Turf Pits, and, on reading the experiments recently made of a quick method of preparing turf for use, it struck me very forcibly that there may be a mine of wealth in those turf pits that we little dream of.

The Whitfield Enclosure Act was passed in 1810, and the awards made in 1813. The fortunate inhabitants of Whitfield at that time became the possessors of land, to the title of which no objection can be raised. No. 19 award, 21a. 3r. 30p., was sold by Robert Wagstaffe, in 1861, to Messrs. John, Daniel and Samuel Wood, for £1,060.

The inhabitants of these townships had to have communications with each other, hence they made roads through their own territory to each other's farms, Carts were not used in those days, but locomotion was by means of horse back. The roads would be simply tracks made by constant traffic. As the population increased, and manufactures became established, it was necessary to make better and better roads. The first Highway made in this District was the one from Chapel-en-le-Frith to Enterclough Bridge. I will read you a few extracts from the minute book belonging to Mr. ??? the Borough Surveyor:—
Chapel to Enterclough Bridge. 24-5-1792. “Ordered that the road from Hollingworth Head to Enterclough Bridge, be made and carried on from the North side, the old road near the plantation, continuing that road by certain stakes now on the common and so through the village of Chunal as the old road now runs to John Bramhall's Banks, and so through John Bramhall's field and John Bennett's Ryecroft, by Mr Charles Hadfield's Mill, and so on in a direct line to Hollin Cross Lane, and in that lane through Robert Fielding's field on the Little Moor to Bridge End”. 14-6-1792 Ordered that the inhabitants of Chunal and Whitfield work on the roads three days, according to the statute.

The Bridges in the township are: Hurst, built by the Constable; Cross Cliff Foot Bridge, built by the Constable; Howard Town (Victoria), 1793, built by the Constable; Shepley Mill, 1803, built by Trustees; Dinting Mill, 1804, built by Trustees; Primrose, 1804 built by Trustees; Chunal, 1793, built by Trustees; Gnat Hole Foot Bridge, Ancient Bridge, 1809; Gnat Hole Bridge built by Enclosure Commissioners.

The Lords of the Manor, not having any jurisdiction over the freehold land in Whitfield we find more streets named after local families than in the Township of Glossop. The Glossop Estate Agent took care when granting leases that the names and titles of the Howard family should be perpetuated. We have Duke Street, Norfolk Street, Lord Street, Howard Street, Arundel Street (First Earl. 1139), Surrey Street (First Earl, 1483), Fitzalan Street (1330), Shrewsbury Street - one of the Earl of Shrewsbury's daughters brought the Glossop Estate by marriage, Talbot Street, the name of the Earls of Shrewsbury, Bute Street - a son-in-law of the late Lord Howard. The Christian names are represented by :— John Street * (first Duke of Norfolk, died 1483), Thomas Street (second Duke of Norfolk, died 1524), Henry Street (sixth Duke of Norfolk, died 1683), Edward Street (ninth Duke of Norfolk, died 1777), Charles Street (tenth Duke of Norfolk, died 1786), Bernard Street (twelfth Duke of Norfolk), died 1842). George Street and Sunlaws Street, the name of a seat of the Howards in Scotland. We have Royalty remembered by Queen Street, Victoria Street, King Street, and Princess Street.
Hamnett was wrong about John Street. It was named for John Hadfield, a member of the family which owned the land it was built on (see A Hadfield Family of Whitfield.).

I wish you now to accompany me through the Township. We will commence at the Hurst, and the name means a woody bank, a place with trees. The cotton mill was built by the Kershaws (see The Kershaw Family of Hurst and Whitfield). I do not know the date, but the house has a lead spout head dated 1804. The partnership between James and John Kershaw was dissolved in 1825. James died in 1836 and John in 1838. He was succeeded by his son John, who carried on the business. He died in Dec., 1861. Mr. Frederic Buckley took the business over in 1860, and many of you will remember him as a Justice of the Peace and captain in the Glossop Volunteer Corps.

There used to be a beerhouse which was built by a John Fielding, at the Hurst (on the south side of the Derbyshire Level), called the Balloon Tavern. It was taken down and the stones used to build the white-washed house, nicknamed " Mushroom Hall.". Mr. Fielding neglected to obtain a lease of the land, so at his death it became the property of the Lord of the Manor.

The Jumble Estate was sold in 1652 by Nicholas Charlesworth, whom I have previously mentioned, to Thomas Booth, of Pye Grove, for £260 13s. 4d., and has changed owners many times since. The Robinsons, of Gnat Hole fame, formerly had a small mill at the Jumble, in old deeds called "Jumbo land."

Cross Cliffe came into the hands of the Hadfield family. The mill was originally known as Hadfield's Mill, then Cross Cliffe Mill, and nicknamed “Shoddy Bump Mill." It was burned down on the 2nd June 1868 (see A Hadfield Family of Whitfield.).
A terrible affair occurred at Cross Cliffe on the 3rd January 1884, Richard Townhend, Dorothy Stafford, and her two daughters being suffocated by an escape of gas.
Cliffe Road was, sixty years ago, described as "The Hurst Carrs."

Joel Row comprises the houses built by Joel Bennett in 1824, whose initials and the date are on the stone built in the wall. He was one of the main supporters of the Universal School, which stood where the Goods Station now stands.

Hague Street - Mr Joseph Hague, born in 1696 at Chunal, commenced business in a very humble way, but by his industry, honesty, and perseverance, he eventually amassed a large fortune. He lost his children in their infancy, and the bulk of his fortune he distributed amongst his relations. But he did not forget his native place. Having settled down at Park Hall, he determined to do something towards the education of the children in Whitfield. Seven years before his death he built, and endowed, the Whitfield Endowed School. The indenture is dated 11th January, 1779, but the school was opened on the 22nd November, 1778. There were forty two scholars. Mr. George Roberts (see The Kershaw Family of Hurst and Whitfield) was the first schoolmaster, and seems to have been not only a Scholar but also a real Christian. One of his diaries, found in pulling down an old house at Mouselow by Councillor John Platt, is very interesting. We learn from it much of the private affairs of Whitfield people - how they borrowed and lent money, and helped each other in many ways. Mr Roberts was the lawyer of the district and general agent. He resigned his position in 1800 owing to ill health, and was succeeded by Mr John Dearnaley who built Dearnaley Row in Kershaw Street. Many of the old Whitfieldites remember him as "Crab fist.".
In 1843, Mr, James Bosley succeeded him. This gentleman was at one time partner with Mr. Robert Kershaw, and taught in the Glossop Church School. The late Mr. Sellars said that he was the only teacher in the school who could pray, except the curate. (Laughter). The other teachers were paid half-a-crown each for teaching, which was mainly reading and writing. Mr. Bosley died in 1844.
Mr. John Ball was the next, and was just the reverse in character to Mr. Bosley. He was dismissed for bad conduct.
Mr John Bardsley was schoolmaster from 1853 to 1872, when he retired and was succeeded by Mr. George Ford, the Quarter-master of the 23rd Derby Rifle Volunteers, whose military funeral in 1878 is still remembered.
The next master, Mr. Noah Booker, had two wives, and he served a term of imprisonment for having one too many. (Laughter)
Mr. W P. Evason has been in charge since 1881.

Hampson's Fold and Hampson Street.—The Hampsons have taken their share in the town's government. John Hampson, who was from Nantwich, was killed by falling off his hay-cart in the road where Mr C. Bradbury's shop now is. His son John had a large family. Thomas, the contractor, was a Guardian and Town Councillor, and he built Highfield House and other property. John built the Crown Inn. Joseph was proprietor of the Royal Oak for many years, and he did good service as a Guardian in the cotton panic. His three visits a day to the Glossop Conservative Club was as regular as a clock, and you might have told the time of the day by them. He owned property in Bank Street and Unity Street (see The Ham(p)son Family of Whitfield.).

The Bee Hive.—In 1830 the landlord's son, named Jonathan Hall, lent his coat and waistcoat to one of the soldiers billeted on them, it was the time of "the 4s 2d. or swing turn out," who deserted. Young Hall was fined £20 and costs, and not being able to find the money he did three months work inside Derby Gaol. Ten years afterwards his father, John Hall, died suddenly in Manchester.

Whitfield Wesleyan Chapel dates from 1812, and the new Sunday School from 1885.

A little further on we notice an old fashioned white-washed house " R.T. 1638.". It was built by Robert Thornley. A Thornley built the two white-washed houses at the Lane End, and in certain deeds they are described as "Siah House," rather a curious name. Mr. Wm. Thomley built the houses off Victoria Street, and known as Thornley's Court. The Thornleys are undoubtedly an old local family.

Passing to Charles Town, we are reminded of the Charles Hadfield of Lees Hall, who built the Charles Town Mill. The Toll Bar has now disappeared, but the Drovers Arms remains to remind us that Mr. Robert Buckley, when he built it in 1824, knew that drovers are as a rule thirsty souls (Laughter.)

Mr. J Shaw built the Commercial at the opposite side of the road in 1838, and he was one of the Shaws who had the “Bury-me-wick Mill”.

Acre Street was built in 1833. The Nags Head was formerly a farmhouse, and it was first known as an inn as “The Quiet Woman."

The "Noon Sun" was the name of the houses and shop kept by the late Mrs. Bradbury.

Ashton Street is built on land belonging to Thomas Shaw Ashton.

The people in this neighbourhood are well supplied with reading rooms. There is the club in connection with St. James Church, the Co-op Reading-room, and the Glossop-Dale Working Men's Club.

We now pass up Freetown, so named on account of the land being mostly freehold. Living inhabitants can remember when it was part of Hollincross Lane, with hedges on both sides, similar to what Pikes Lane was in 1870.

Unity Street was built in 1832 by the Orange Lodge No, 696, and some people even now call it Orange Row. It then became the property of an Oddfellows' Lodge, and was known also as "Oddfellows' Row," and the Lodge being in the Manchester Unity, the street was named Unity Street.

Ebenezer Street – The first houses were built on 1852 by Mr. James Robinson. Ebenezer means "the stone of help". The Whitfield United Methodist. Chapel, built in 1854, gives the name to the street.

The present laundry was formerly a brewery, built in 1846, by Mr. James Robinson, who built the Surrey Arms, Victoria Street, in 1846. James Robinson was brother to William, who is so well remembered as a manager of Sumner's Mill (see The Robinsons of Gnat Hole). The brewery was built on the site of the dog kennels belonging to the Glossop Hunt. Their property, including a boiler, which would hold 100 gallons, was sold in 1834. The Whitfield wells were probably built at the same time as the dog kennels. I have never come across any information regarding them of an earlier date. Some years ago, at the Wakes, when people stayed at home, the wells were beautifully decorated, and were the source of attraction to visitors and residents, past and present. It is a pity that this old custom is entirely given up.

The Roebuck was built by Mr. William Prince in 1851.

The site of Whitfield Cross was most likely at the top of the Cross in Hague Street, and there are some stones there that look much like the foundation stones. Of Hollin Cross there is not a vestige left. Part of the shaft of Whitfield Cross forms part of the stile at Cross Cliffe. It was stolen over a hundred years ago one "mischief night” by the Cross Cliffe lads, and it was never brought back. The reason why the Glossop Cross has survived is because of its proximity to the church and the fact of the Howards being Roman Catholics, and it was to the interests of the Protestant tenants to preserve it. In the Township of Whitfield, no ??? feared, there was nothing to prevent the Puritans from destroying the work of the old monks who formerly owned Glossop.

??? Street was built in 1833, but I do not know it got that name. Will someone volunteer the information?

The oldest houses in Gladstone St are in the neighbourhood of "Bell Man's House”, the property of the Heys'. Mr. John Gaunt, schoolmaster, in 1835, built Nos. 19, 21, and 23 Gladstone Street, and the land was then "The New Inclosure."
Mr. Joseph Elliott, in 1850, the Victoria Inn.

Wood Street.— Band-room reminds us that Whitfield has generally had a band of one kind or another. In the local newspaper of 1862 it says: “May 6th. The Whitfield temperance Brass Band, in full uniform, played at a Tea Party of the Glossop Temperance Tract Society”. On the 9th Dec. of the same year, the Whitfield Brass Band gave a free concert in the Market Hall, and there were 900 people present, and the concert was such a success that it was repeated on the 17th. The Whitfield Band in the past have organised band contests and sports which have given pleasure and amusement to thousands. It is to be hoped we shall soon have another Mr. James Sidebottom amongst, us to encourage by his purse and sympathy the musical talent which is ready at hand to put the band in a position as high as it ever attained.

The playground and Public Reading room provide a long-felt want by the youths and maidens of this neighbourhood, whilst the Whitfield Working-Men's Club provides a second home for the adults, I believe it was formerly a grocer's shop, but the proprietor, Mr Priestnall, failed in 1867.

Kershaw Street — the first houses built seem to be those numbered from 35 to 51, erected in 1834. Some of you will remember the beerhouse called the "Pig and Whistle," which used to be at the corner of Derby Street and Kershaw Street.
"Bacon Square”, of course, now called by its proper name, Hadfield Square. Mr James Higginbottom, who lived there, kept a quantity of pigs and our forefathers were always ready with a suitable nickname for anything.
The Kershaw Institute was formerly the Whitfield Church Institute, and was founded in Feb., 1849. Mr. Robert Kershaw and the Vicar, not agreeing over the management, it was removed in 1858 to Mr. Hall's building in King Street, now Wilson and Bates' Mineral Water Manufactory. Mr. Kershaw, in the meantime, determined to have a suitable building, and at his own expense erected the present Institute. It was opened in Nov., 1859, and at that time there were 900 volumes of books in the Library, which cost over £260.
Mr. Robert Kershaw was born at Hollingworth, Dec. 18th, 1804, and was the son of James Kershaw, a machine maker, who removed to Charlestown in 1816. The Kershaws were a numerous family and worked both the Hurst and Charlestown Mills, now Walton's Bleachworks. Mr. Robert Kershaw was for over forty years a teacher to his fellow men. He died in 1864, much regretted by all classes (see The Kershaw Family of Hurst and Whitfield).

King Street —Mr. William Harrison, in 1840, built five houses, and these were afterwards purchased by another William Harrison, dresser, whose eccentric sayings would fill a good-sized book.
All the land about here and Derby Street is part of the land purchased three hundred years ago by the Wagstaffes.

The Littlemoor Independent Chapel was built and opened in July, 1811. There have been many additions since then, and the present Sunday and Day Schools are a great contrast to the former school in King Street now cottages.
Jan. 18th, 1883, will not soon be forgotten, for it was on that morning that two young servants were found suffocated in bed.
"Mutton Row" are the houses adjoining the new schools, built in 1821 by Mr. Robert Wagstaffe. One of the owners was a butcher and cattle dealer.

The Albion Inn was built by Mr. Joseph Calvert in 1832.

Collier Street, Union Street, and the "Sand Hole" were formerly a wood called the "Hare Hill Wood” and the roads and houses divided it into small plantations. The Roman road from Melandra Castle to Brough could some years ago be traced from Pikes Lane, Princess Street, Sand Hole Road, the Bank, to Cross Cliffe. Remains of it can still be seen in the field between the two stiles at the “Bank”.
The Hare Hill Wood was a favourite place for prize fights between local champions. In the Cotton Famine men were employed in getting sand, and they were paid 1s. per day, so it well deserves the name it got, “Pinch-belly Park."

Park Terrace dates from 1862.

Mr. John Waterhouse's name will not be forgotten, for we have Waterhouse's Place.

The builder of the "Shivering Row" chose a most unsafe spot, and ever since the erection of the houses they have had this name. During a thunderstorm on the 7th May, 1868, part of one of the gables and roof fell in.

Harrop's Place was erected in 1849 by Mr. George Harrop, joiner.

St. James' Church.—The foundation stone was laid on the 24th Sept 1845 and the church consecrated 8th Sept. 1846. The schools have been enlarged time after time, and new schools built, which alone speaks for the services rendered to the parishioners.

The fountain, the only one in the Township, was given by the late Mrs. John Wood, of Whitfield House (see The Glossop Drinking Fountains.).

Churn Milk Hall is the three-storeyed building formerly the farmhouse of the Hadfields (see Churn Milk Hall at the Corner of Hadfield Place and James Street). They (Hadfields) are descendants of one of those previously mentioned. To give you an idea of the land they possessed, I will give you extracts from the will of Mr. William Hadfield, which will was proved 26th Feb. 1820: "John to have Hollincross Meadow, Bridge Field Meadow, New Croft, And the new piece in the Littlemoor." This John died in 1863. and he left several sons and daughters. Isaac Hadfield, one of our early Town Councillors, died 1876. "Robert to have Throstle Nest, Mill Moor, and the Mill Moor Meadow." Robert built the Hanging Gate, which was on his own land. "James to have Crosscliffe, Kiln Croft Meadow, Bridgefield, Bridge Field Meadow, and the Wood." "Joseph the Whitfield Leeches and Whitfield High Moor. His mill at Crosscliffe to be worked jointly by them.” Hadfield Place and Hadfield Street perpetuate this old family. Hamnett was correct regarding Hadfield Place but Hadfield Street was built on land owned by the Hadfields of Lees Hall and named for them.

Mount Pleasant Chapel was opened in 1869.

Green's Square dates from 1847. Thomas Green was a banksman, and built the seven houses and a beerhouse.

John Shaw, to whom the Atkins are related, had property in Shaw Street.

Sumner Street and Sumner's Place remind us of the late F. J. Sumner, the most successful manufacturer who ever lived in the Township.
St Mary's Roman Catholic Chapel (1886) is a splendid memorial to him. The school cost £1,300. and was built in 1854.

The Globe Inn was once the headquarters of the Glossop Botanical Society, which formerly flourished here, and their gardens were near Green's Square. The Globe Inn was the headquarters of the local botanists after they left the Pedestrian Inn. They had a nice collection of specimens and a quantity of valuable books; it was a pity they were not able to keep the collection together.
In 1850 the Globe Benefit Building Society was held here, the trustees being Francis Sumner, John Wood, and John Kershaw, who in 1858, were trustees of the Lamb Tim Building Society. I wonder if it was the same society, but had removed from the Globe.

The Primitive Methodists opened their first, chapel in 1830, on land adjoining the Globe, but removed in 1855 to their present quarters in Shrewsbury Street.

"Jerry Town" is the neighbourhood of nos. 233 to 247 High Street West. Mr. Jerry Sykes built the property in 1821, and they were the first houses built in High Street West. At that time hedges were on both sides of the road from the Printworks to the present Town Hall. Jerry Sykes died 4th December 1856, aged 77; his son Edward died 5th May, 1878, aged 32.

Nos. 273-275, with houses in Cooper Street, belonged in 1846, to Joshua Dewsnap. landlord of the Hanging Gate Inn. His daughter Sarah married Joseph Walton, factory operative. The Hanging Gate belonged to David Cooper. Cooper Street is called after him. Cooper Street.—Mr. David Cooper was a manager at the Printworks, and he had land here which he had bought from Hadfields (see A Cooper Family of Gamesley and Throstle Nest).

There used to be a spring or well near to the Inn. which was the cause of many disturbances amongst the neighbouring tenants. Spring Street keeps up the remembrances of these squabbles. Spring Street — There used to be a spring at the High Street end. Mr. Thomas Wagstaffe, builder, in 1852, first built here. He failed three years after.

Howard's Place - Mr. John Howard was a bookkeeper, and built the Grapes Inn and the houses in the rear in Howard's Place in 1845, on land called Mow Wood (see The Howards of Ludworth and Bridgefield). The old houses opposite the Grapes Inn were built in 1817, by Joseph Cooper, farmer, Dinting, in a field called Kid Bottom. To the east was a plantation extending to Wren Nest Mill.

The Junction Inn was built in 1817 by John Garlick, on a 99 years lease (see The Garlick Family of Pikes and The Junction). The land was then Pikes Plantation. Mr. Jacob Kaye in 1874, obtained a new lease for 999 years. From this house to Birds' Nest Cottage was called "Junction”. Mr Clayton once kept a beerhouse here called “The Primrose Inn." A rather exciting affair took place opposite to the Inn in 1829, the mail coach, "The Umpire," overturning, one man being seriously hurt.

The Dinting Church Lads Club is a useful institution.

Primrose House, formerly the residence of Mr. Sumner, has long been a private school.

Queen Street.-- When Mr Hugh Higginbottom built his houses, in 1852, he never thought about the water supply. He was asked “What art goin' to call thi houses?” “Weer art goin' to get thi water from?" “ By gum I never thought of that." " Well, then, call thi houses 'Dry Mount,'" and "Dry Mount" is the name most popular today.

The Primrose Mill of which scarcely a vestige is left, was built by Mr. Joseph Hadfield of Lees Hall. One of his tenants was Mr. William Radcliffe, who once was a Guardian. Neglecting his business, he failed and died a pauper. The mills was several times robbed.

Bridge Field Mill was built in 1784, by Mr John Garlick. It was long in the possession of the Howards and Wardlows, and it was burnt down in 1875.

I have now taken you practically through all the streets in in the township but must reserve, for some other occasion an account of the humour, stories, legends, and customs of the inhabitants, and the remarkable occurrences which have taken place within the Township. (Applause.)



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Last updated: 2 October 2020