The First Hundred Years of Banking in Glossop.

The roots of banking can be traced back thousands of years but the industry as we know it was started in the UK in the 17th century by goldsmiths. Banking accelerated during the 18th as merchant banks were formed in response to the demands of the industrial revolution and trade in general. It was not until the 1820s, though, that joint stock banks started to be formed. One of the early ones was the Manchester & Liverpool District Banking Company. The first English savings bank was established in 1799, and postal savings banks were started in England in 1861.

Manchester and Liverpool District Banking Company.
The Manchester & Liverpool District Banking Co (founded in 1829) was the first bank in Glossop. According to the records of the RBS (Royal Bank of Scotland, of which it is now a part) the bank opened the town's first banking office on 2 February 1833, initially trading one day a week from a room in the Norfolk Arms. It was then a sub-office of the bank's Ashton branch. The manager, Samuel Bolton Tomlins, can be found in census records living in Stamford Street, Ashton in 1841, 1851, 1861 and 1871. A report in The Glossop Record of 18 April 1863 reported that Samuel Tomlins had been approached to become Treasurer of Glossop Union and had agreed to do so “at a very small remuneration”.

From RBS records we learn that new branch was an immediate success and just two months after its opening the bank began to look for a more permanent home, constructing its first premises in High Street West in June 1833. Hamnett tells us that the bank moved from the Norfolk Arms to No 1, High Street West and a report in the Glossop Chronicle in 1938, when Burton's opened on the same site, says that the bank opened its premises there on 25 March 1844. Trade directories only list a vague address of Howard's Town, apart from White's directories of 1857 and 1862 which give the Norfolk Arms as the address.

Although the RBS history says the bank opened daily from 1836, becoming an independent branch by 1873, that is contradicted by trade directory entries which say it opened on Saturday only between 11am and 1pm. A paragraph in the Glossop Record of 20 July 1867 announced that the branch would open daily from the 1st August, 1867 and that a Mr Gee had been appointed the resident bank manager. A paragraph in the Glossop Record of 17 August 1867 announced that the branch was open daily from 9 am to 3 pm except Saturday when it closed at 1 pm.

It has not been possible to find a date for the building of Bank House. The Poor Law Map of 1857 shows part of the building (marked 97) but it is not clear how much of the eastern end had been built. The Glossop Record of 23 May 1868 contains an advertisement for a shop and house to let “next door to the District Bank, Norfolk Square” and the 1871 census shows a 16 year old Matthew W. Hadfield, Bank clerk, in charge at the District Bank, the entry being the one between those for the Railway Station and 11 Henry Street. The Post Office Directory of 1876 gives the bank address as Norfolk square. William Henry Hollingberry was manager (and also treasurer to the Union). Subsequent directories show similar details. By 1888, William Hollingberry was Borough Treasurer and treasurer to the Rural Sanitary Authority as well as to the Union. The council had come to an arrangement with the bank whereby the manager acted as borough treasurer without fee, the bank being remunerated by having the business of the corporation. Bank House was also where Mr Hollingberry and his family lived.

William Hollingberry retired in 1896, Thomas T. Kenyon taking over as both manager and as treasurer to the three public bodies. Harry Broadhurst also appears in the 1901 census, when he was a bank accountant. Kelly's directories of 1908 and 1912 name him as having taken over from Thomas Kenyon (though Theo Walter Ellison recorded that Samuel Fletcher had taken over as in-house borough treasurer in 1909).

In 1924 the bank shortened its name, becoming the District Bank. Kelly's directory of 1925 lists Harold W. Sheldon as manager. By that time the Borough Council had long reverted to employing its own treasure but Harold Sheldon remained Treasurer to the Union & Rural District Council.

Kelly's directory of 1928 names Arthur Sherlock as having taken over the managerial and two treasurer posts. Poor law unions were abolished in 1930 but Kelly's directory of 1932 still shows Arthur Sherlock as treasurer to Glossop Dale Rural District Council, as well as managing the bank.

Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) records tell us that the Hadfield branch of the bank opened in 1890, though it was managed from the Glossop office. During the first world war the branch opening was restricted to alternate days as a result of staffing shortages caused by men joining the forces. Initially directories listed it simply as Station Road but in 1908 gave the number as 91, where the bank appears to have been sharing premises with a grocer and a solicitor. That could, though, have been a misprint as there is no listing for number 97 where the bank is listed from 1912 to 1932. The directories show that the practice of alternate day opening continued, the bank being open Monday, Wednesday & Friday from 10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. plus Saturday from 9.30 to 11 a.m.

Norfolk Square showing the two District Bank buildings
This view of Norfolk Square shows Bank House at the left and the Manchester & County building at the right.

Manchester & County Bank Limited.
The Manchester & County Bank was established in 1862 but didn't open a branch in Glossop until 1890. According to the RBS records, that was in purpose-built premises in Norfolk Square. That appears to be inaccurate as the entries in Kelly's directories of 1891 and 1895 (and in Bulmer's in 1895) list the bank in High Street West with James Percival Boote as manager. The first time the bank is listed in Norfolk Square is in Kelly's directory of 1899, which would explain why the 1897 OS map shows no building there.
James C. Jackson was listed as manager by Kelly in 1899 and 1900 and appears in the 1901 census. By 1908 the position had been taken over by William Duty Robinson, who stayed for several years. His daughter, Hilda Mary Robinson, became famous as the soprano and actress Lorely Dyer. The last manager of the bank, before the merger in 1935, was Harold W. Hunter who is listed in Kelly's directory of 1932.

Kelly's directory of 1895 is the first to mention a branch of the bank in Hadfield. As with the Manchester & Liverpool District Bank, it was simply listed as Station road initially. Kelly's directory of 1925 gives its address as 97 Station road (the same as the District Bank) but that may be an error as it is listed at 132 Station road in 1928 and 1932. The bank was always managed from Glossop.

District Bank Limited.
In 1935 the Manchester & Liverpool District Banking Co merged with the Manchester & County Bank. The business of the two branches was combined in 1938 at the latter's Norfolk Square premises. Arthur Sherlock continued as manager but in 1936 John W Tregidga is listed as manager of the County Bank branch in Glossop and the sub-branch at 132 Station Road, Hadfield.

Norfolk Square showing the Post Office and County Bank buildings

Norfolk Square from a different angle showing the Post Office on the corner of Henry Street and the Manchester & County building at the right.

Barclays Bank.
Barclays Bank was formed in 1896, by the merger of some 20 small private banks, but it was several years before it came to Glossop, opening a branch at 20 High Street West. Cecil Rogers Woodward is listed as the manager in Kelly's directories of 1925 and 1928, the move to the corner site at 1 High Street East coming in that period. He was followed by D. Morris Evans, who stayed until 1939 when he joined the Army.

Lloyds Bank.
Lloyds converted from a private bank to a joint-stock company in 1865, opening its first branch in Glossop in the 1920s. Kelly's directory of 1928 lists its branch at Norfolk Chambers in Henry Street with Roscoe S. Ashton as manager. Kelly's directories of 1932, 1936 and 1941 list E. J. Bowerbank as the manager. However, Roscoe Ashton continued to live at Ryecroft House in Manor Park Road where, in 1939, he was described as a Bank Manager. At the same time, Edward Bowerbank was a bank manager in Southport.

The Glossop branch of Lloyds Bank made the news nationally in May-July 1929 when it was reported that £2,718 had been stolen in a daring robbery when the assistant manager had been bound and gagged, after being knocked out by chloroform, whilst his colleagues were at lunch. Police suspicions were aroused because the next door Liberal Club was busy as a result of the municipal elections and nobody had seen anything suspicious. The investigation found that the assistant manager and a friend had lost money as a result of gambling, taken £800 from the bank to cover the loss, and staged the robbery so that the theft would not be discovered. Almost all the £1,918 actually taken was recovered. The assistant manager was sentenced to 8 months in prison and his friend to 2 months.

Barclays Bank

Barclays Bank at the junction of Norfolk Street and High Street East
Lloyds Bank
Lloyds Bank, Norfolk Chambers, Henry Street

Glossop Dale Savings Bank.
The bank was established on 3rd April 1843 under the patronage of his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, using a room in his new Town Hall. Lord Howard was President, Francis Sumner the treasurer and the bank was supported by the leading figures of the town. In newspaper reports of 1849 and Slater's directory of 1850, John des Jardins was named as the secretary/actuary. The bank opened on Mondays from 11 till 1. John des Jardins died in 1852 and the job of actuary/secretary was taken over by Francis Hawke who was the managing clerk to the Duke of Norfolk (and later to Lord Edward G. F. Howard), based at the Duke's office, Henry street, Norfolk square. He is listed in the Post Office Directory 1855 and White's directory of 1857.

Whilst the bank was obviously doing well, not everyone was happy. This letter was published in the Glossop-dale Chronicle and North Derbyshire Reporter of 19 November 1859:
Sir,—I always considered that savings' banks were principally established for the benefit of the working classes; but I perceive that, to the greater portion of the inhabitants of Glossop and neighbourhood, the Glossop-dale Savings’ Bank is almost useless in comparison to what it might be. For a bank of this description to be open for business only in the middle of a regular working day, and in a manufacturing district like Glossop, seems to me to be folly in the extreme. Hoping however that the hint may be taken in good part.

Following on was this letter published in the Glossop Record of 4 February 1860:
Sir,—In order to give every accommodation and facility to the now very numerous body of depositors in the Glossop-dale Savings' Bank, it is intended to propose - and very likely the proposition will be agreed to - that, instead of the bank being open only one day in the week (Monday) from eleven till one o'clock, in future it shall he opened two days in the week, viz., on Wednesday, from eleven till one o'clock, and on Saturday, from half-past three till five o'clock. It is thought that, being available on the Saturday, it will induce many to take advantage of the opportunity to deposit what money they have to spare, while they have wages in hand, and thereby be the means of keening them from the temptation of spending their hard earnings foolishly, or, as the old saying is, “to provide for a rainy day,” - as circumstances may occur, through accident or sickness, which may be relieved and alleviated by this wise and timely precaution, and, if not thus needed, may be the means of founding for themselves some other mode of useful and profitable employment. Should the above alteration be sanctioned, there will be wanted double the present number of managers - that is, persons who verify by their signatures every money transaction done at the bank, whether receiving or paying out. But, unfortunately, it appears that under the present management it has been difficult, even with only one day open in the week, to get the appointed managers to attend at their proper times, which is a very undesirable state of things. It is to be hoped, however, that there will be gentlemen found fitting to assist and do their utmost to further and effectually carry out the alteration intended; and, though it may be some sacrifice of time to the persons who have to attend (and they ought to do so regularly or find a substitute), there will be this consolation - that it would be difficult to select any object more worthy of consideration and support. It is almost superfluous to use any argument as to the beneficial tendency of Savings' Banks, in connexion with the other, which is now in very successful operation, and eventually may be quite as useful, as it takes very small contributions and is well adapted for the convenience of the young, who through its instrumentality may be lead in early life into those habits of economy and carefulness which may he the means of their future advancement and welfare. Taking the management of both these will require considerable personal attendance on the part of the gentlemen and tradesmen of the neighbourhood, but great assistance might be afforded the Penny Banks, if the different mill owners would take an interest in the matter and allow some one, whom they might appoint, to receive any deposit the work hands might wish to make, which person could hand the same over when the bank is open, and by this means save much time. The same may be said of schools, some of which have already adopted this plan with great success. If a proper interest be felt in the matter, there is no question but it may he worked out to a satisfactory and beneficial issue, creditable to the district, and tending to elevate in the social scale those who need the sympathy and support of their wealthier neighbours, and whose general improvement is essential to the public welfare and the best interests of society.

The trustees and managers of the bank were obviously sympathetic to the opinions of their depositors as these reports show.
Glossop Record 21 January 1860:
At the general annual meeting of the trustees and managers, held at the bank, on Wednesday, January 18th, John Wood, Esq., in the chair, a detailed statement of the accounts of the bank for the year ending the 20th of November, 1859, was read over.
That the same be received and approved and printed for distribution amongst the depositors and in the neighbourhood.
That the thanks of the meeting be given to the Treasurer, Trustees and Managers, for their diligent attention to the affairs of the Bank during the past year.
That the thanks of the meeting be given to Mr. John Wood, for his report upon and attention to the accounts of the Bank.
That the meeting accepts with deep regret Mr. Hawke's resignation of the office of Secretary of the Glossop-dale Savings' Bank, expresses its entire approval of the efficient manner in which he has discharged all the duties that have devolved upon him. and tenders to him its sincere thanks for his long and faithful services to the institution, and requests that, on the appointment of his successor, he will accept the office of an honorary Manager of the Bank.
That a special meeting be held on Wednesday, the 1st February next, to adopt preliminary measures for the appointment of a Secretary, and to consider the desirability of opening the Bank on Wednesday, instead of Monday in each week,
At the conclusion of the meeting, a vote of thanks was passed to the Chairman.

Glossop Record 11 February 1860:
GLOSSOP SAVINGS' BANK - At a special meeting, held on Thursday last, at the bank, it was resolved, on the motion of John Wood. Esq., seconded by the Rev. Thomas Atkin, and carried unanimously, that Mr. Charles John Hadfield be elected secretary of the bank. The resolutions passed at the meeting held on the 1st instant, with reference to the opening of the bank on Wednesdays and Thursdays instead of Mondays, and also as to the augmentation of the secretary's salary, were carried. A further resolution, inviting the the president and trustees to attend at the bank as managers, was passed, and the following gentlemen were added to the list of managers :- Messrs. John Lawton, Hugh Beaver, Richard Hole, Samuel Robinson, Charles Collier, and the Rev. John O’Reilly.

Glossop-dale Chronicle and North Derbyshire Reporter 18 February 1860:
To afford depositors increased facilities, the Bank will afterwards be open on Wednesday's and Saturday's, instead of Monday, commencing with Saturday the 18th instant. Hours of attendance:- Wednesday from 11 to 1 o'clock. Saturday from Half-past 3 to 5 o'clock.
C. J. HADFIELD, Secretary, Savings' Bank, Feb 9th 1860

A fuller report of the AGM, published in the Glossop Record on 18 February 1860, showed how much the bank was supported by the leading citizens of the town:
President - Lord Howard
Vice-presidents - John Chapman & William Sidebottom
Trustees - John Chapman, William Sidebottom, Michael Ellison, John Wood, G. W. Newton, Francis Sumner, John Kershaw, Edmund Potter & James Sidebottom.
Managers - Rev. Thomas Atkin, John Atkinson, John Ashton, Rev Charles Bateman, Joseph Bennett, John Barbar, William Bramhall, M. J. Ellison, Rev. T. Fauvel, William Goddard, James Hardman, John Hadfield, John Handforth, W. W. Howard, Rev. G. C. Jackson, Henry Lees, Robert J. Lees, Isaac Linney, Robert Longson, Samual Marsland, Rev. Brian O'Donnell, Thomas Platt, William Platt, Joseph Robinson, William Shepley, James Shepley, John Shepley, T. P. Sykes, Rev John Teague, Daniel Wood, Samuel Wood & J. N. Winterbottom.

Opening hours were obviously revised again for the convenience of the depositors. The Post Office Directory of 1876, and subsequent directories, state that the bank was open on Saturdays 12 a.m. till 1 p.m. & 6 to 7 p.m. Charles John Hadfield (a descendant of the Lees Hall family and the Ellisons) remained as actuary until his death, in 1881, when his place was taken by his son, Francis Charles John Hadfield. When the latter's death was reported, in February 1894, he was described as manager of the Glossop Dale Trustees’ Savings Bank.

The next actuary was Francis Bede Ellison, son of the Glossop Town Clerk, Thomas Michael Ellison. His term was comparatively short. It appears that he took up a different career after he married and his father died (both events in 1896). His will, dated 20 May 1896, describes him as a Print Works Manager of Holly Grove, Hollingworth and the 1901 census shows that he was “Living On Own Means”.

Kelly's directories of 1899 through to 1912 list Walter Pedley Evason (who was also master of Hague's School at Whitfield) as the actuary. The bank was then open on Fridays, 8 to 9 p.m. & Saturdays, 6 to 7 p.m. (7:30 p.m. by 1908) at Howard chambers. Walter Evason is still listed as the master of Hague's School in Kelly's directory of 1925 (just 2 years before his death) but directories after 1912 have no mention of the savings bank.

1880 map

The 1880 map shows the Post Office on Henry Street, Bank House and the Savings Bank in the Town Hall
1919 map

By 1919 the Post Office had moved onto Norfolk Square and the Manchester & County branch had replaced the earlier buildings

Post Office Savings Banks.
Savings bank accounts at post offices were enabled by the Post Office Savings Bank Act of 1861. The aim was to to provide additional facilities for small savers. It was to be another 15 years before a mention in a directory (the Post Office Directory 1876) of PO Savings Banks in the Glossop area.

By that time the Glossop Post Office had been established in Norfolk Square. Miss Betty Kaye Woodhead was the post-mistress and the savings bank was open from 9 to 6; on Saturdays, from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Miss Woodhead was the sister of Daniel Woodhead, publisher of the Glossop-dale Chronicle and North Derbyshire Reporter. Some 12 years later Daniel's daughter, Miss Sarah Elizabeth Woodhead, had become post mistress. The savings bank was open from 9 a.m. to 6.30 p.m.; on Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. In 1892 she married William Rodley but carried on with the job, even working longer hours. Kelly's directories of 1895 to 1900 say that the savings bank was open from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Daily. Sarah died in 1901, three years after she was widowed She was followed by Joseph Shepherd (Kelly's directory 1908) and James A. Waterston (Kelly's directory 1912).

The 1876 directory also lists a Post Office Savings Bank at Hadfield, where William Garlick was the postmaster and business was transacted from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m.; on Saturdays till 8 p.m. Two years later Squire Garlick had taken over from his father, staying in post until his death in 1898. He was succeeded by James Wright (Kelly 1899 and 1900) and Mrs. Mary A. Wright (Kelly 1908).

Subsequent directories no longer carried details of a savings bank at the post office.

1897 map
The location of the original Hadfield Post Office at Bank Bottom is shown on this 1897 map
District Bank

The District Bank at the corner of Salisbury Street and Station Road.

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Last updated: 26 December 2020